Monday, January 20, 2020

Initiation in Mark Twain’s The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn Essay

Initiation in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn In the Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, â€Å"Initiation† is the main idea, in other words the â€Å"major theme.† In an initiation narrative, the protagonist, who in this case was Huck Finn, goes through a rite of passage, a growing up process, which is multifaceted. In a moment of crisis, the protagonist is suddenly obliged to make the painful and alarming transition from childhood to adulthood; this passage is known as the initiation. The initiation is the protagonist’s first step or movement into a new beginning. It is essentially a process by which the hero gains self-knowledge and finds his own identity. In the process, he also learns about the world in which he lives and the nature of evil. The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, is a novel...

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Market Survey on Commodities Future Trading

An Industry Internship Project On COMMODITIES FURTURE TRADING WITH RESPECT TO GEOJIT COMTRADE LTD – MARKET SURVEY Done at CALICUT, KERALA Under the guidance of MRS. C. ANITHA RANI (Asst. Professor of Marketing Dept. ) (Project Guide) Mr. CHACKO . C. VARGHEESE (Regional manager) (Corporate Guide) Submitted By: LAKSHMI. P. K Roll No: 20028 SIVA SIVANI INSTITUTE OF MANAGEMENT KOMPALLY, SECUNDERABAD ACKNOWLEDGEMENTFirst of all I would like to thank Geojit COMtrade Ltd, which is a leading organization in commodity trading, for giving me an opportunity to work with them and to do Market Research to gain practical knowledge of how a Commodities Company works. My special obligations to my corporate guide Mr. Chacko C Varghese, Regional manager, GC Branch, Calicut, for granting permission to do the project in their esteemed organization. I thank him for dedicating his valuable time in reviewing my project work periodically and for directing me all the way.I am deeply indebted to thank my faculty guideAsst. Prof. C. Anita Rani. I also like to thank all my faculties who have taught me and haveshared their experience with mewhich has helped us in doing my project. I am thankful to Mr. Ajeesh Paul and Mr. Bijesh K. B, senior executives of Geojit COMtrade ltd, Calicut who was always ready to clarify my doubts related to the topic. And my sincere thanks to them. Also, I am thankful to my family, friends, and classmates and to the Almighty.Date: Signature Place: DECLARATION I, Lakshmi. P. K declare that this project entitled â€Å"Market research on commodity future trading with respect to Geojit COMtrade Ltd. †, submitted for the award of the PGDM Triple Specialization is a record of original project – research study- carried out during April 5th- June 5th) , that the project has not formed before the basis for the award of any Degree/ Diploma/ Associateship/ Fellowship of any other similar title.Ithas been completed by me at Geojit COMtrade Ltd, Calicut under the guidance ofAsst. Prof. Anita Rani,faculty of marketing department of Siva Sivani Institute of Management. Date: Signature Place: C O N T E N T S DECLARATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT CERTIFICATE TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE NO Chapter – IIntroduction 5 Statement of problem 5 Objectives of the study 6 Scope of study 6 Literature Review 6 Chapter – II Industry Profile 8 Company Profile 19 Departmental Details 26Chapter-III Research Methodology 44 Sources of data 45 Sampling Plan 45 Limitations 45 Chapter IV Data Analysis: Interpretation and Findings 46 Chapter-VSWOT Analysis 71 Conclusion 73 Suggestions 74 Bibliography 75 Annexure 76 CHAPTER -I INTRODUCTION Commodity trading is an area which has gained prominence ever since the dawn of civilization.It can be attributed to the fact that commodities are an integral part of our lives. Over these years there has been a tremendous growth in this segment which in turn has acted as the pillar of strength for the developmen t of our economy. This has made it an attractive investment avenue for investors. Earlier we witnessed lot of money being invested in those companies which specialized in the production of commodities. Now we have a trend reversal; commodities have gained prominence over the times.The rapidly advancing technology, particularly the Internet, has drastically changed the social and economic landscapes and every aspect of our daily lives. In the Securities Industry & Futures Commodities, the Internet has facilitated on-line trading, changing the way the market works, as well as the way the investors access the market. Having taken advantage of information technology at an opportune time, India has emerged as a front-running country of on-line trading in the global securities & commodities markets. On-line trading† is broadly defined as a trading mechanism where investors place orders and confirm trading results via electronic communication channels, such as the Internet, mobile ph ones, In India, the whole process of securities & commodities transactions, from order placement and routing, order execution, to trade confirmation, is fully automated, thus enabling the investors who have placed orders to confirm their trading results within few seconds. Geojit COMtrade Ltd. is a commodity trading service firm. It specializes in agricultural commodities, base metals, precious metals, bullion, and energy.The firm engages in trading services on commodities traded on the MCX and NCDEX in India. Its Research Division offers technical and fundamental research services. The firm also provides research on markets, currency, and economy. Geojit COMtrade Ltd. is based in Kochi, India. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM Online future commodities trading involve personal factors, technical factors, business factors and economic factors. The interplay of these factors on commodities market requires a deep study about the pattern process and procedures and performance.This study is inte nded to identify the various concepts about online commodities trading and its way of functioning. 1. To identify the level of awareness of commodities online future trading. 2. To identify the target consumer for online trading of commodities. 3. To identify the preference of customers to various investment avenues like commodity market, shares, mutual fund, bank deposits, insurance, debentures and post office savings. 4. To identify the awareness level of Geojit COMtrade Ltd. and feedback from the customers about the firm. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDYMy project work programmed was also directed to some particular targets and the main objectives of the study are as bellow; 1. To clearly state the awareness level about Geojit commodities 2. To understand the perception of people about Geojit commodities 3. To devise an approach by making people aware of Geojit commodities The Main purpose of conducting the Survey for Geojit COMtrade Ltd * To identify the target consumer for commodities b usiness. * To identify the preference of customers to various investment avenues like commodity market, shares, mutual fund, bank deposits, insurance, debentures and post office savings. To identify the awareness level of Geojit COMtrade Ltd. and feedback from the customers about the firm. * To get a feel of the Customers’ perception about Geojit commodities services products. * To find an appropriate communication message for attracting the people to Geojit COMtrade Ltd SCOPE OF THE STUDY Globalization of the financial market has led to a manifold increase in investment. New markets have been opened; new instruments have been developed; and new services have been launched. Besides, a number of opportunities and challenges have also been thrown open.Online Commodities trading is new as compared to Equity market in India. Mainly three exchanges are involved in online commodities trading MCX, NCDEX & NMCE LITERATURE REVIEW So many studies are made in the area of commodity futur e trading. Some of the important studies are reviewed as follows; In a well-known literature survey on commodity futures research, Gray and Rutledge observed that, ‘Anyone who undertakes a survey of the literature on futures trading is confronted with an amorphous and rather disjointed list of publications (1971 p 57).Some of the pioneers in futures research, like Hol brook Working, Roger Gray, Tom Hieronymus, Allen Paul, and Henry Bakenwere based on an in-depth understanding of economic institutions, an appreciation of the major problems facing the industry, and careful analysis of relevant data. Gray and Rutledge (1971) provide the most comprehensive survey on futures markets and the topics covered in their review include evolutionary aspects of futures markets, inter-temporal price relationships, and concept of hedging, price variability, and the stochastic nature of price fluctuations. The Keynesian theory of normal backwardation was one of the earliest theories of the int er-temporal futures prices and it postulated that futures prices are biased estimates of forthcoming cash prices because hedgers must compensate speculators for assuming the price risk of holding future contracts * Working (1949) developed the idea that the primary function of commodity futures markets was the provision of the returns for the storage services, and he viewed inter-temporal prices as the jointly determined price of storage. Holbroook Working (1953) categorized alternative motives for commercial hedging in the commodity futures and these categories continue to be valid today. The three arbitrage hedging, operational hedging and anticipatory hedging. Since the futures and cash price converge in the delivery month, a commercial firm can ‘arbitrage’ the two markets and earn a risk-free return from the predictable change in the basis- the mathematical difference between the futures and cash price.Operational hedging facilitates commercial business by allowing firms to buy and sell on the futures markets as temporary substitutes for the subsequent cash market transactions. This provides firms with an avenue for being flexible in day-to-day operations and reducing price risk. Anticipatory hedges involve buying or selling futures contracts by commercial firms in ‘anticipation’ of the forthcoming cash market transactions. Price expectation plays a major role in this type of hedge. * Leuthold and Tomek (1980) explained that semi-perishables (e. . , butter, eggs, onions, potatoes) were traded at the turn of the century but the introduction of trading in nonstorables such as live hogs and live cattle in the 1960s was a watershed for the industry. They argued that since future prices for nonstorables are not being used to allocate inventories, forward pricing is an important economic justification for these markets They pointed out that some of the farmers remain concerned about the alleged adverse influence of futures trading. Acco rding to theoretical literature, primary commodity producers stand to derive considerable price risk reduction benefit from hedging with either future contracts or forward contracts (Johnson 1960; Stein 1961; McKinson in 1967; Danthine 1978; Holthausen 1979; Feder, Just and Schmitz 1980; Andearson and Danthine 1983) * According to empirical literature either minimum variance hedge ratios or optimal hedge ratios (i. e. % of output to be hedged) and has found large potential risk reduction benefits from hedging (Henifner 1972; Peck 1975; Ederington 1979; Grant and Eaker 198559; Casteino 1992; Lene, Kimle, and Hayenga 1993) * But both theoretical and empirical literature appears to contradict reality because very few primary producers actually hedge (Helmuth 1977; Berk 1981; Brorsen 1995) * Survey results of Blank, Carter and McDonald 1997 found thatfarmers prefer forward contracting to direct hedging with future contracts.According to Miller (1986) the one key distinguishing feature b etween these two factors is the absence of basic risk in forward contracting. * Carter and Loyns (1985) found that due to a high basis risk, there was a little incentive for Canadian feedlots to hedge cattle on the Chicago futures market. * Rolfo in 1980 suggested production risk as an explanation for the lack of hedging interest in the real world. Most research needs to be directed towards the impact of government farm programs on commodity futures markets, along the lines of Crain and Lee (1996) * The theory of price of storage explains inverted markets by appealing to the concept of convenience yield. According to this theory, the futures price can be less than the spot price plus the cost of carry when the commodity generates convenience yield. CHAPTER -II INDUSTRY PROFILE 1) COMMODITY MARKET A commodity is a material that is traded in big quantities and whose quality standards and price are objective and universally applicable.For example, gold is a commodity because quality st andards and price of gold are objective and universal, but gold jewelry is not a commodity because the price of jewelry depends on subjective factors such as design, brand image, etc. Other examples of commodities are: agricultural produce such as food grains, pulses, cotton, etc. ; metals such as nickel, zinc, aluminum, etc. Commodity markets  are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. These raw commodities are traded on regulated  commodities exchanges, in which they are bought and sold in standardized contracts.It covers physical product (food, metals, and electricity) markets but not the ways that services, including those of governments, nor investment, nor debt, can be seen as a commodity. Commodity Market is an organized trader’s exchange in which standardized, graded products are bought and sold. Worldwide, there are 50 major commodity exchanges that trade over 100 commodities, ranging from wheat and cotton to silver and oil. The trading of commoditi es consists of direct physical trading and derivatives trading. Exchange traded commodities have seen an upturn in the volume of trading since the start of the decade.This was largely a result of the growing attraction of commodities as an asset class and a proliferation of investment options which has made it easier to access this market. Commodity trading Spot trading Spot trading is any transaction where delivery either takes place immediately, or with a minimum lag between the trade and delivery due to technical constraints. Spot trading normally involves visual inspection of the commodity or a sample of the commodity, and is carried out in markets such as  wholesale markets.Commodity markets, on the other hand, require the existence of agreed standards so that trades can be made without visual inspection. Forward contracts A  forward contract  is an agreement between two parties to exchange at some fixed future date a given quantity of a commodity for a price defined toda y. The fixed price today is known as the  forward price. Futures contracts A  futures contract  has the same general features as a forward contract but is transacted through a futures exchange. Futures contracts — which set a price for the delivery of a particular commodity in, say, six months or a year — are not themselves to blame.They're the grease that makes these markets function. Futures allow businesses like power companies or airlines to hedge against increases in fuel costs, or food processors to smooth over fluctuations in the price of wheat and corn. Wall Street plays an invaluable role, too, since financial investors — those betting that prices will fall, as well as those betting they'll rise — provide crucial liquidity. Commodity and futures contracts are based on what’s termed forward contracts. Early on these forward contracts — agreements to buy now, pay and deliver later — were used as a way of getting products from producer to the consumer.These typically were only for food and agricultural products. Forward contracts have evolved and have been standardized into what we know today as futures contracts.. In essence, a futures contract is a standardized forward contract in which the buyer and the seller accept the terms in regards to product, grade, quantity and location and are only free to negotiate the price. Hedging Hedging, a common practice of farming cooperatives insures against a poor harvest by purchasing  futures contracts  in the same commodity.If the cooperative has significantly less of its product to sell due to weather or insects, it makes up for that loss with a profit on the markets, since the overall supply of the crop is short everywhere that suffered the same conditions. Delivery and condition guarantees In addition, delivery day, method of settlement and  delivery point  must all be specified. Typically, trading must end two (or more) business days prior to the delivery day, so that the routing of the shipment can be finalized via ship or rail, and payment can be settled when the contract arrives at any delivery point.Most trading is done in futures contracts, that is, agreements to deliver goods at a set time in the future for a price established at the time of the agreement. Futures trading allow both hedging to protect against serious losses in a declining market and speculation for gain in a rising market. For example, a seller may sign a contract agreeing to deliver grain in two months at a set price. If the grain market declines at the end of two months, the seller will still get the higher price quoted in the future contract.If the market rises, however, speculators buying grain stand to profit by paying the lower contract price for the grain and reselling it at the higher market price. Spot contracts, a less widely used form of trading, call for immediate delivery of a specified commodity and are often used to obtain the goods nece ssary to fulfill a futures contract. An independent U. S. regulatory agency, the Commodity Futures Trading Commission was established in 1974 to regulate commodity markets. In 1982, the Chicago Mercantile Exchange introduced a futures contract for Standard ; Poor’s 500 U.S. companies that allow investors to speculate on the future prices of the stocks. Trading of S;P 500 and other financial futures has broken down some of the barriers that once separated stock, bond, and commodity markets and made it easier for investors to hedge their stock investments. Critics charge that the futures trading at the commodity markets in Chicago have made stock prices more volatile. The Chicago Board of Trade is the largest futures and options exchange in the Unites States, the largest in the world is Eurex, an electronic European Exchange.GLOBAL COMMODITY MARKET It is the trading of materials used to make finished products, Is far more important that what the most people give it credit for. It’s what to gives millions consumers worldwide their cups of creamy lattes, their breakfast cereals, the steel for their home construction, and even the fuel to run their cars. In fact international commodity trading is a multi-billion dollar business, and on average the number of trade executed in the commodity exchanges are about five times as much as those on major stock exchanges.And to be honest in the recent past it has been anything but dull. In the past five years commodities have provided all the thrills and spills of a high octane Vin Diesel movie. The idea of trading in commodity future contracts is really very old –school, although it has occurred new age glitz because of electronic exchanges. Most experts trace their origins back to Japan, were rice futures were first traded in the 17th century. Future market for precious metals such as gold and silver has also been around since in the 19th century with maize contracts with the Chicago Board Of Trade (CBO T).Basically commodity futures allow buyers and sellers to make bets on the expected future spot prices. They help both sides obtain insurance for the future value of their outputs or inputs. Cereals were first to be traded under the future contracts and the farmers were the first to use such contracts as they protect them from any steep fall in the value of crop harvested in future. Commodity future differed from equity derivatives in three important ways; 1. They are derivative securities not claims on long living corporations. 2. They are short maturity claims on real assets 3. nlike financial assets, they experience distinct seasonal variations in price and volatility Today there are more than 50 commodity exchanges in the world wide trading in more than 100 products. The major products come under five categories; 1. Precious metals (gold, silver, platinum, etc. ) 2. Industrial metals (copper, nickel, aluminum, zinc, etc. ) 3. Agricultural commodities (wheat, corn, cotton, oilse eds, coffee, cocoa, sugar etc. ) 4. Livestock (pork bellies, cattle, etc. ) 5. Energy(crude oil, natural gas, petrol, diesel etc. ) Oil makes up the world’s largest commodity future market. Daily turnover on the New York Mercantile Exchange(NY mex) alone totals about $15 billion) followed by coffee, steel, gold and wheat. New contract ideas however keep popping up all the time. For instance, freight futures are also traded on the Norwegian futures and Options Clearing house and the Nymex. While the Chicago Mercantile exchnge9 now taken over by the CBOT) offers contracts on temperatures, useful for hedging agricultural commodity or energy prices. COMMODITY FUTURE TRADING EVOLUTION OF FUTURE TRADING AND ITS PRESENT STATUS Organized future market evolved in India by the setting up of â€Å"Bombay Cotton Trade Association Ltd. in 1875. In 1893, following widespread discontent amongst leading cotton mill owners and merchants over the functioning of the Bombay Cotton Trade Associa tion, a separate association by the name â€Å"Bombay COTTON Exchange Ltd. † was constituted. Futures trading in oilseeds were organized in India for the first time with the setting up of Gujarati VyapariMandali in 1900, which carried on futures trading in groundnut, castor seed and cotton. Before the Second World War broke out in 1939 several futures markets in oilseeds were functioning in Gujarat and Punjab.Future trading in Raw Jute and Jute Goods began in Kolkata with the establishment of the Calcutta Hessian Exchange Ltd. , in 1919. Later East Indian Jute Association Ltd. was set up in 1927 for organizing futures trading in Raw Jute. These two association amalgamated in195 to form the present East India Jute ; Hessian Ltd. , to conduct organized trading in both Raw Jute and Jute goods. In case of wheat, future markets were in existence at several centers at Punjab and U. P. The most notable amongst them was Chamber of Commerce at Hapur, which was established in1913.Other markets were located at Amritsar, Moga, Ludhiana, Jalandhar, Fazilka, Dhuri, Barnala and Bhatinda in Punjab and Muzaffarnagar, Chansausi, Meerut, Saharanpur, Hathras, Ghazibad, Sikenderabad and Barielly in U. P. Futures market in Bullion began at Mumbai in 1920 and later similar markets came up at Rajkot, Jaipur, Jamnagar, Kanpur, Delhi and Calcutta. In due course several other exchanges were also created in the country to trade in such diverse commodities as pepper, turmeric, potato, sugar and Gur (jaggory). After independence, the Constitution of India brought the subject of â€Å"Stock Exchanges and Futures† in the Union list.As a result, the responsibility for regulation of commodity futures markets developed on Govt. of India. A bill on forward contracts was reffered t an expert committee headed by Prof. A. D. Shroff select committees of two successive Parliaments and finally in December 1952 Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952, was enacted. The Act provided for 3- tier regulatory system; (a) An association recognized by the Government of India on the recommendation of Forward markets Commission (b) The Forward Markets Commission (it was set up in September 1953) (c) The Central Government.Forward Contracts (Regulation) Rules were notified by the Central Government in July, 1954. The Act divides the commodities into 3 categories with reference to extent of regulation, viz: (a) The commodities in which futures trading can be organized under the auspices of recognized association. (b) The Commodities in which the future trading is prohibited. (c) Those commodities in which have neither being traded under the recognized association nor prohibited are referred as free Commodities and the association organized in such free commodities is required to obtain the certificate of Registration from the forward Markets Commission.In the seventies, most of the registered associations became inactive, as futures as well as forward trading in the commodities for which they were registered came to be either suspended or prohibited altogether. The Khursho Committee(June 1980) had recommended reintroduction of futures trading in most of the major commodities, including cotton, Kapas, raw jute and jute goods and suggested that steps may be taken for introducing futures trading in commodities, like potatoes, onions, etc. at appropriate time.The government, accordingly initiated futures trading in Potato during the latter half of 1980 in quite a few markets in Punjab and Uttar Pradesh. After the introduction of economic reforms since June 1991 and the consequent gradual trade and industry liberalization in both the domestic and external sectors, the Govt. of India appointed in June 1993 one more committee on Forward Markets under Chairmanship of Prof. K. N. Kabra. The Committee submitted its report in September 1994. THE MAJORITY REPORT OF THE Committee ecommended that futures trading be introduced in 1) Basmati Rice 2) Cotton ; Kapas 3) Raw Jute ; Jute Goods 4) Groundnut, rapeseed/mustard seed, cottonseed, sesame seed, sunflower seed, safflower seed, copra and soya bean, ; oils and oilcakes of all of them. 5) Rice brain oil 6) Castor oil ; its oilcake 7) Linseed 8) Silver ; 9) Onions. The committee also recommended that some of the existing commodity exchanges particularly the ones in pepper and castor seed, may be upgraded to the level of international future markets.The liberalized policy being followed by the Government of India and the gradual withdrawal of the procurement and distribution channel necessitated setting in place a market mechanism to perform the economic functions of price discovery and risk management. The National Agriculture Policy announced in July 2000 and announcements of Hon’ble Finance Minister in the Budget Speech for 2002-2003 were indicative of Governments resolve to put in place a mechanism of futures trade/market. As a follow up the Government issued notifications on 1. 4. 003 pe rmitting futures trading in the commodities, with the issue of these notifications futures trading is not prohibited in any commodity. Options trading in commodity are, however presently prohibited. ECONOMIC BENEFIT OF FUTURE TRADING ; ITS PROSPECTUS Futures contracts perform two important functions of price discovery and price risk management with reference to the given commodity. It is useful to all segments of economy. It is useful to producer because he can get an idea of the price likely to prevail at a future point of time and therefore can decide between various competing commodities, the best that suits him.It enables the consumer get an idea of the price at which commodity would be available at a future point of time. He can do proper costing and cover his purchases by making forward contracts. The futures trading is very useful to the exporters as it provides an advance information of the price likely to prevail and thereby help the exporter in quoting a realistic price an d thereby secure export contract in a competitive market. Having entered into an export contract, it enables him to hedge his risk by operating in futures market.Other benefits of futures are: (i) Price stabilization-in times of violent price fluctuations – this mechanism dampens the peaks and lifts up the valleys i. e. the amplitude of price variation is reduced. (ii) Leads to integrated price structure throughout the country. (iii) Facilitates lengthy and complex, production and manufacturing activities. (iv) Helps balance in supply and demand position throughout the year. (v) Encourages competitions and acts as a price barometer to farmers and other trade functionaries.Futures trading are also capable of being misused by unscrupulous speculators. In order to safeguard against uncontrolled speculation certain regulatory measures are introduced from time to time. They are: (a) Limit an open position of an individual operator to prevent over trading. (b) Limit on price fluctu ation (daily/weekly) to prevent abrupt upswing or downswing in prices (c) Special margin deposits to be collected on outstanding purchases or sales to curb excessive speculative activity through financial restraints. d) Minimum/maximum prices to be prescribed to prevent future prices from falling below the levels that are un remunerative and from rising above the levels not warranted by genuine supply and demand factors. During shortages, extreme like skipping trading in certain delivers of contract, closing the markets for a specified period and even closing out the contract to overcome emergency situations are taken. PROSPECTS With the gradual withdrawal of the government from various sectors in the ost liberalization era, the need has been felt that various operators in the commodities market be provided with a mechanism to hedge and transfer their risks. India’s obligation under WTO to open agriculture sector to world trade would require futures trade in a wide variety of primary commodities and their products to enable diverse market functionaries to cope with the price volatility prevailing in the worlds market. CHARECTERISTICS OF FUTURE TRADING A â€Å"Futures Contract† is a highly standardized contract with certain distinct features.Some of the important features are as under: (a) Futures trading are necessarily organized under the auspices of a market association s that such trading is confirmed to or conducted through members of the association in accordance with the procedure laid down in the Rules ; byelaws of the association. (b) It is invariably entered into for a standard variety known as â€Å"basis variety† with the permission to deliver other identified varieties known as â€Å"tender able varieties†. (c) The units of price quotation and trading are fixed in these contracts, parties to the contracts not being capable of altering these units. d) The delivery periods are specified. (e) The seller in a futures market has the choice to decide whether to deliver goods against outstanding sale contracts. In case he decides to deliver goods, he can do so not only at the location of the Association through which trading is organized but also at a number of other pre-specified delivery centers. (f) In futures market actual delivery of goods takes place only in a very few cases. Transactions are mostly squared up before the due date of the contract and contract and contracts are settled by payment of differences without any physical delivery of goods taking place.RECENT TRENDS IN COMMODITY TRADING Nature’s Commodity Outputs Commodity thinking is undergoing a more direct revival thanks to the theorists of â€Å"natural capital whose products, some economists argue, are the only genuine commodities- air, water and calories we consume being mostly interchangeable when they are free of pollution or disease. Whether we wish t think of these things as tradable commodities rather than birthrights has been a major source of controversy in many nations.Most types of environmental economics consider the shift to measuring them inevitable arguing that reframing political economy to consider the flow of these basic commodities first and foremost, helps avoids use of any military fiat except to protect â€Å"natural capital† itself, and basing credit-worthiness more strictly on commitment to preserving biodiversity aligns the long-term interests of eco regions societies, and individuals. They seek relatively conservative sustainable development schemes that would be amiable to measuring well-being over long periods of tie, typically â€Å"seven generations†, in line with Native American thought.Weather trading However, this is not the only way in which commodity thinking interacts with ecologists’ thinking. Hedging began as a way to escape the consequences of damage done by natural conditions. It has matured not only into a system of interlocking guarantees, but a lso into a system of indirectly trading on the actual damage done by weather, using weather derivatives for a rice, this relieves the purchaser of concerns such as whether a freeze will hurt the Brazilian coffee crop, whether there will be a drought in the U. S. orn belt and what the chances that we will have a cold winter are, driving natural gas prices higher and creating havoc in Florida orange areas. Emissions Trading Weather trading is just one example of â€Å"negative commodities†, units of which represent harm rather than good. â€Å"Economy is three fifths of ecology argues Mike Nickerson one of many economic theorists who hold that nature’s productive services and waste disposal services are poorly accounted for. One way to fairly allocate the waste disposal capacity of nature is â€Å"cap and trade†- market structure that is used to trade toxic emissions rights in the United States, e. . SO2. This is in effect a â€Å"negative commodity†, a ri ght to throw something away. In this market, the atmosphere’s capacity to absorb certain amounts of pollutants is measured, divided into units, and traded amongst various market players. Those who emit more SO2 must pay those who emit less. Critics of such schemes argue that unauthorized or unregulated emissions still happen, and that â€Å"grandfathering† schemes often permit major polluters, such as the state governments’ own agencies, or poorer countries, to expand emissions and take jobs, while the SO2 output still floats over the border and causes death.In practice, political pressure has overcome most such concerns and it is questionable whether this is a capacity that depends on U. S. clout: The Kyoto Protocol established a similar market in global greenhouse gas emissions without U. S. support. Community as a commodity This highlights one of the major issues with global markets of either the positive or negative kind. A community must somehow believe tha t the commodity instrument is real, enforceable, and well worth paying for. Avery substantial part of the anti-globalization movement opposes the Commodification of currency, national sovereignty, and traditional cultures.The capacity to repay debt, as in the current global credit money regime anchored by the Bank for international settlements, does not in their view correspond to measureable benefits to human wellbeing worldwide. They seek a fairer way for societies to compete in the global markets that will not require conversion of natural capital to natural resources nor human capital to move to developed nations in order to find work. Some economic systems green economists would replace â€Å"gold standard† with a â€Å"biodiversity standard†. It remains to be seen if such plans have any merit other than as olitical ways to draw attention to the way capitalism itself interacts with life. Human life as a commodity The green economists and the more conservative envi ronmental economics argue that not only natural ecologies, but also the life of the individual human being is treated as a commodity by the global markets. A good example is the IPCC calculations cited by the Global Commons Institute as placing a value on a human life in the developed world â€Å"15x higher† than in the developing world, based solely on the ability to pay to prevent climate changes. Overview of commodities exchange in IndiaForward Markets Commission (FMC) headquartered at Mumbai, is a regulatory authority which is overseen by the Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food and Public Distribution, Govt. of India. It is a statutory body set up in 1953 under the Forward Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1952. â€Å"The Act provides that the Commission shall consist of not less than two but not exceeding four members appointed by the Central Government out of them being nominated by the Central Government to be thereof. Currently Commission comprises three members among whom Shri. B. C. Khatua, IAS, IS THE Chairman and Shri.D. S. Kolamkar IES, and Shri Rajeev Kumar Agarwal, IRS, are the members of the commission. † The functions of Forward Markets Commission are as follows: (a) To advise the Central Government in respect of the recognition or the withdrawal of recognition from any association or in respect of any other matter arising out of the administration of the Forward Contracts(Regulation) Act 1952. (b) To keep forward markets under observation and to take such action in relation to them, as it may consider necessary, in exercise of the powers assigned to it by or under the Act. c) To collect and whenever the Commission thinks it necessary, to publish information regarding the trading conditions in respect of goods to which any of the provisions of the act is made applicable, including information regarding supply, demand and prices, and to submit to the Central Government, periodical reports on the working of forward markets relating to suc h goods. (d) To make recommendations generally with a view to improving the organization and working of forward markets. (e) To understand the inspection of the accounts and other documents of any recognized association or any member of such association whenever it considers.List of Commodity Exchanges in India 1. Batinda Om ; Oil Exchange Ltd. , Batinda. 2. The Bombay Commodity Exchange Ltd. , Mumbai 3. The Rajkot Seeds oil ; Bullion Merchants` Association Ltd 4. The Kanpur Commodity Exchange Ltd. , Kanpur 5. The Meerut Agro Commodities Exchange Co. Ltd. , Meerut 6. The Spices and Oilseeds Exchange Ltd. 7. Ahmedabad Commodity Exchange Ltd. 8. Vijay Beopar Chamber Ltd. , Muzaffarnagar 9. India Pepper ; Spice Trade Association, Kochi 10. Rajdhani Oils and Oilseeds Exchange Ltd. , Delhi 11. National Board of Trade, Indore 12. The Chamber Of Commerce, Hapur 13. The East India Cotton Association, Mumbai 4. The Central India Commercial Exchange Ltd. , Gwalior 15. The East India Jute ; He ssian Exchange Ltd. 16. First Commodity Exchange of India Ltd, Kochi 17. Bikaner Commodity Exchange Ltd. , Bikaner 18. The Coffee Futures Exchange India Ltd, Bangalore 19. Esugarindia Limited 20. National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited 21. Surendranagar Cotton oil ; Oilseeds Association Ltd 22. Multi Commodity Exchange of India Ltd 23. National Commodity ; Derivatives Exchange Ltd 24. Haryana Commodities Ltd. , Hissar 25. e-Commodities Ltd Of these 25 commodities exchanges the MCX, NCDEX and NMCEIL are the major Commodity Exchanges.Multi  commodity exchange  of India Ltd – MCX is an independent and de-mutualised exchange based in Mumbai. Established on 10 November, 2003, it is the third largest bullion exchange and fourth largest energy exchange in the world. Recognized by the Government of India it deals in numerous commodities and carries out online trading, clearing and settlement processes for commodities future market  countrywide. MCX COMDEX is India's foremost and sole composite commodity futures price index National Commodity & Derivatives Exchange of India Ltd (NCDEX) located in Mumbai, is a public limited company incorporated on 23rd April 2003.Promoted by national level establishments it is run by professional management. Regulated by the Forward Market Commission with reference to futures trading in commodities, it trades in various commodities online. The NCDEX is covered by: * Companies Act * Stamp Act * Contracts  Act * Forward Commission (Regulation) Act National Multi-Commodity Exchange of India Limited (NMCEIL) is considered the first de-mutualized, online exchange dealing in numerous commodities. Incorporated on 20th December 2001, it is promoted and run by: * Central Warehousing Corporation National Agricultural Cooperative Marketing Federation of India Limited * Gujarat Agro Industries Corporation Limited * National Institute of Agricultural Marketing * Gujarat State Agricultural Marketing Board * Neptune Overseas Limited The Commodity Exchanges with their extensive reach embrace new participants, resulting in a powerful price discovery process. COMPANY PROFILE Evolution of the company It all started in the year 1987 when Mr. C. J. George and Mr. Ranajit Kanjilal founded Geojit as a partnership firm. In 1993, Mr. Ranajit Kanjilal from the firm and Geojit became the proprietary concern of Mr.C. J. George. In 1994, it became a Public Limited Company named Geojit Securities Ltd. The Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (KSIDC) in 1995, became a co-promoter of Geojit by acquiring a 24 percent stake in the company, the only instance in India of a government entity participating in the equity of a stock broking company. The year 1995 also saw Geojit being listed on the leading regional stock exchanges. Geojit listed at the stock exchange, Mumbai (BSE) in the year 2000. Company’s wholly owned subsidiary, Geojit Commodities Ltd. launched Online Future Trading in Agri -commodit ies, precious metals and energy futures on multiple commodity exchanges in 2003. This was also the year when the company was renamed Geojit Financial Service Ltd. (GFSL). The Board consists of professional directors; including a Kerala Government nominee. With effect from July 2005, the Company is also listed at National Stock Exchange (NSE). Company is a character member of the Financial Planning Standards Board of India and is one of the largest Depository Participant (DP) brokers in the country.On 31st December 2007, the company closed its commodities business and surrendered its membership in the various commodity exchanges held by Geojit Commodities Ltd. Global banking major BNP Paribas took a stake in the year 2007 to become the single largest shareholder. Consequently, Geojit Financial Services Ltd. has been renamed as Geojit BNP Paribas Financial Services Ltd. VISION The vision of Geojit is to be leading financial and commodities market intermediary for individuals and insti tutional clients from India band overseas.They continually strive to raise their products and service standards by intelligent application of technology and processes. MANAGEMENT OF GEOJIT COMTRADE Geojit COMtrade offers trading services in Commodities Futures. It is managed by a group of professionals having considerable years of experience and expertise in Commodities, ever since the reintroduction of Commodities Futures in India in 2003. Geojit COMtrade offers its client state-of-art trading tools such as:    * | * Technical and fundamental analysis at this website and also through the company's large branch network | * | * Research Reports | | * SMS alerts on market movement | * | * Content rich website | * | * Online trading | * | * Facility to view online ledger, holdings, positions, etc. | Geojit COMtrade also conducts seminars, distributes free in-house literature and holds interactive sessions that help raise awareness on the future market. The number of participants is c ontinuously on the rise thus leading to increased volumes and market efficiency. Geojit COMtrade is a member of the following Exchanges: * National Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (NMCE) | | * National Commodity ; Derivatives Exchange Limited (NCDEX) | | * Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) | | * National Spot Exchange of India Ltd (NSE) | Geojit COMtrade offers futures trading through multiple exchanges in varied commodities such as: Agricultural Commodities: | * Plantation Crops like Rubber, Coffee, Arecanut, etc. | | * Spices like Pepper, Cardamom, Turmeric, Jeera, Chilly, etc. | | * Pulses like Chana | | * Oil ; Oil Seeds like Refined Soya oil, Soya bean, Cotton seed, Mustard Seed, Mustard oil, etc. | * Cereals like Maize | | * Other commodities like Guar gum, Guar seed, Menthaoil, Potato, Sugar, etc. | | * Commodity Spot products like E Gold, E Silver, E Copper, E Lead, and E Zinc. | Precious metals: | * Gold, Silver, and Platinum | Metals: | * Copper, Le ad, Aluminum, Steel, Tin, Nickel, Zinc, etc. | Energy products: | * Crude oil, Natural Gas, Carbon Credits, etc. MILESTONES | | | Product innovation backed by a high level of domain specific knowledge and state-of-the-art technology has helped Geojit to set many milestones including numerous industries. 986 * Membership in Cochin Stock Exchange (CSE). 1994   * Becomes a Public Limited Company named Geojit Securities Ltd. 1995   * Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation Ltd. (KSIDC) acquires 24 percent equity stake. * Membership in National Stock Exchange (NSE). * Public Issue  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  1996 * Launch of Portfolio Management Services with SEBI registration. 1997   * Depository Participant (DP) under National Securities Depository Limited. 1999   * Membership in Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE). 2000 * BSE Listing. * 1st broking firm in India to offer online trading facility. * Commences Derivative Trading with NSE. Integrates the 1st Bank Payment Gateway in the country for Internet Trading. 2001 * Becomes India's first DP to launch depository transactions through Internet. * Establishes Joint Venture in the UAE to serve NRI customers. 2002 * 1st in India to launch an integrated internet trading system for Cash & Derivatives segments. 2003 * Geojit Commodities Limited, wholly owned subsidiary, launched Online Futures Trading in agri-commodities, precious metals and in energy futures on multiple commodity exchanges. * National launch of online futures trading in Rubber, Pepper, Gold, Wheat and Rice. Company renamed as Geojit Financial Services Ltd. 2004 * National launch of online futures trading in Cardamom. 2005 * NSE Listing. * Geojit Credits, a subsidiary, registers with RBI as a Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC). * National launch of online futures trading in Coffee. 2006 * Charter member of the Financial Planning Standards Board of India. 2007 * BNP Paribas takes a stake in the company’s equity, making it the single larg est shareholder. * Establishes Joint Venture in Saudi Arabia to serve the Saudi national and the NRI. 2008 * BNP Paribas Securities India (P) Ltd. – a Joint Venture with BNP Paribas S. A. or Institutional Brokerage. * 1st brokerage to offer full Direct Market Access execution in India for institutional clients. 2009 * Launch of Property Services division. * Launch of online trading in Currency Derivatives. * Consequent to BNP Paribas becoming the largest stakeholder in Geojit BNP Paribas, company is renamed as Geojit BNP Paribas Financial Services Ltd. 2010 * Launch of  FLIP (Financial Investment Platform), a new advanced online investment platform. * Launch of state of the art Mobile Trading platform to empower clients to trade from anywhere, even while on the move through the innovative application FLIP- ME. | | | | | Board of DirectorsMr. A. P. Kurian  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive & Independent ChairmanMr. C. J. George   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Managing Director & Chief PromoterMr. Alkeshkumar Sharma  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive & Independent DirectorMr. Olivier Le Grand  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive DirectorMr. Pierre Rousseau  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive DirectorMr. Mahesh Vyas   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive & Independent DirectorMr. RakeshJhunjhunwala   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive DirectorMr.Ramanathan Bupathy   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive & Independent DirectorMr. Pun noose George   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   Non – Executive DirectorA growing footprintWith a presence in almost all the major states of India, the network of 558 offices across 300 cities and towns presently covers Andhra Pradesh, Bihar, Chattisgarh, Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Jammu & Kashmir, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, New Delhi, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu & Pondicherry, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal and West Bengal.GEOJITCOMMODITIES * Number 1 Broking house status in terms of Trading Terminals : Dun & Bradstreet Survey 2008 * The first brokerage to offer online trading in Rubber (Mar 2003), Pepper (Apr2003), Gold (Oct2003), Wheat and Rice (Dec2003), Cardamom (Apr 2004) and Coffee (Feb2006) * Brand image of Industry Pioneer since inception of commodity futures in 2003| Its clientele range from investors, co-operative societies, state and national institutions to dealers, traders, manufacturers, financiers, speculators, arbitragers, etc.Geojit COMtrade does not have proprietary interest in any commodity and therefore is price neutral. Transaction costs are highly affordable attracting a spectrum of investors. Membership in multiple exchanges gives clients the added advantage of arbitrage. Geojit has specialized staff that provide the required guidance, help and enable clients to enter at the appropriate price. Geojit COMtrade: Increasing investor awareness/education * Daily, weekly and special reports on various commodities & currencies covering both international as well as domestic markets. Seminars and workshops designed to help both the new clients as well as experienced traders. * Increased media spending to make ourselves more visible in print, visual as well as digital media, so that our reports and views reach better to our investo rs. * Offers SMS / email reports at no additional cost. GEOJIT ANTHEM DRIVEN BY TRUST â€Å"With trust, our driving force Transparent in daily chores, Passionate, compassionate, We keep Geojit on course Respectful of our call We care for our patrons’ all. Grateful for our growth before We seek blessings to grow tall. Shanti ho barabaar shanti ho Sayyam, Samridhi, Swaasthya ho,Geojit Jahaan ho! Expanding far and wide, And serving the world with pride, Loyalty inspiring us To be beyond the high tide; A brighter word to make Unfurling the flag we take; â€Å"All for one and one for all,† With love to last above all. DEPARTMENTAL STUDY Administration * Provides support and service for the activities of the board of directors * Coordination of branch activities and provision of interaction between branches and the main office * Expanding the reorganization of Bank market network. * To create appropriate condition for efficient operation of structural franchisees Human reso urceHuman Resources and Administration department is one, which facilitates smooth working of the organization by looking into the human resource side and also the overall administration of organization. The Human Resource Management is very important for the success of any organization. Different individual exhibit similar and dissimilar pattern of behavior. They have their own set of needs, drives, goals and experiences. Management should be aware of their requirements. Manpower management is the most critical job. Proper human resources management will enhance the efficiency and performance of people at work.HR MISSION * To create HR policies and processes which are employee friendly * To build a culture of warm forthcoming and professional with a sense of ownership and pride. * To encourage innovative thinking. * To encourage transparency and team work. * To develop leaders at all levels with general management skills. * To create a learning organization. * To develop competenci es and skills through training and development. * To constantly raise levels of employee productivity. * To work towards attaining and sustaining the best employer status Other functions ofHuman Resource Department RecruitmentRecruitment means generating a pool of qualified employees for job. Announcing job opportunities to public in such a way that number of suitable people will apply for them. Recruitment process is done only at the initial stage. Mainly qualified people are selected for work. Selection Selection means choosing right profile from that number, those applicants whom are most likely to succeed in the job. After getting the list of candidates an interview is conducted at the unit level. Final selection is made after testing their skill and technical abilities by putting them on the job. Training and developmentTraining and development is also done in Geojit. After recruitment and selection the new hands are given on the job training at the unit level. All workers are kept as trainers for three months to one year. Later they are absorbed as permanent workers considering their performance. Promotion Promotion is the transfer of an employee to a new position which comments high pay, privilege status both at work and the community outside and fringe benefits perhaps the greater job security. And more senior position from which a person render better service to his company. His duties, responsibilities, status and pay also increase.Company gives keen attention with regard to promotion. Wage structure Wage structure is different for different position Allowances Second most important component of wage package is dearness allowance, which is paid to offset the rise in prices. Allowances like conveyance, house rent etc. Employees provident fund Company follows contributory provident fund. The workers contribute some percentage of their wage (basic pay + DA) and the management contributes at an equal rate. Labor welfare fund There is a labor welfare fund in which the employee contributes some rupee per head and the employer contributes at double to the same.The fund enables the subscriber to get children treatment of self and dependents etc†¦ Thus all employees are covered social security schemes of government, enabling education of children of workers etc. Gratuity Employees are eligible for the gratuity based on payment of Gratuity Act, 1972 Welfare to workers Rest room A rest mean is covered provided to employees to relax at concerned time. Facilities of relaxing The company also provides siting facilities for workers when they are getting interval or lunch. Health One of the important thing is that the employees general health both physical and mental should be cared.The factors which influence the general health of the worker can be divided into two broad groups. 1) Those which are associated with his working environment 2) Those which he shares with the rest of the community Cleanliness The company is kept clean and free from effluvia. Accumulation of dust removed by proper drainage facility made in the chemical treatment. Walls, doors and windows shall be repainted or varnished at least once in three years Disposal of waste and effluence Effective arrangement shall be made for the disposal of waste. It does not harm any local people in any way. Ventilation and temperatureEffective arrangements shall be made for ventilation and temperature so as to provide comfort to the workers and prevent injury to their health. Adequate ventilation is made for fresh air. Air condition is provided for every room. Dust and fires Effective management shall be taken preview the inhalation and accumulation of dust and fires or other impurities in parities at workplace. Lighting The state government may prescribe standards of proper artificial nature lighting facilities are included. Drinking water There shall be effective arrangements for some drinking water for worker at convenient points.FINANCE AND ACCOUNTS Financ e is the lifeblood of any organization. It deals with both the acquisition as well as ‘allocation of funds. Hence finance department assumes a great role in this organization. A finance department in an organization is responsible for maintaining fair and just accounting, working capital management, long term funding decision making, costing etc. The finance department provides authorization and control to all other subsystems to utilize money more effectively through a well-designed mechanism the major functions of a finance department can be grouped as follows:- )Preparation of financial statement 2) Providing sufficient funds to all departments. 3) Cash flows within the firm 4) Cash forecasting and budgeting 5) Analysis of transactions conducted by each branch office 6) Pay in and Pay out DUTIES AND RESPONSIBILITIES Chief financial officer is the head of the finance department the entire financial operationsare controlled and coordinated by C. F. O. The entire reports are s ubmitted before him and it is his duty to take appropriate steps. He is assisted by Chief Manager Finance. The general accounts of the company are managed by the Chief Manager.Preparation of reports and statements also conies under his duty, matters concerning pay in and pay out are also determined and analyzed by Chief Finance Manager. The Chief Manager is assisted by Manager Finance. Below him there are two assistant managers, four executives and three junior executives. It is the duty of these people to record and analyze the normal accounts and transactions of a day and to report it to Chief Manager Finance. HIERARCHY OF AUTHORITY CHIEF FINANCIAL OFFICER CHIEF MARKETING OFFICER (fig-1)Department structural hierarchy JUNIOR EXECUTIVE EXECUTIVE ASSISTANT MANAGERMANAGING OFFICER The departmentis concerned with the provisions and use of accounting information to managers within organizations, to provide them with the basis to make informed business decisions that will allow them to be better  equipped in their management and control functions. The accounting department jointly performs the financial function of Geojit Functions of accounting department include preparing, checking and accounting the following vouchers and  bills. ? Cash receipt and cash payment. ?Bank receipt and bank payment. ? Purchase journal. Journal voucher. ?Preparing debit/credit notes. Updating vouchers in computer system. ?Preparation of reconciliation statement such as bank, party accounts etc. ?Maintain and safe custody of vouchers, records, ledgers and registers. ?Review of the general  ledger and sub ledger and reconciliation. ?Ensure safety custody of cash and  unused cheque. ?Maintain the fixed asset register and ensure proper filling of the bills of purchase, installation certificate etc. for the tax purpose. ?Ensure compliance of the various commitments for the borrowings and adherence of the schedule for the repayment of the interest and the principal.OPERATIONS DEPART MENT The past few decades have given-emphasis to operations functions mainly because it is the important subsystem of an organization and is responsible for customer satisfaction. As this department deals directly with customer satisfaction the company requires careful policies and procedures to carry out the activities under the operations department so that the services provided by them must be of a specific quality. The operations department of Geojit is again subdivided into five according to the services they deal with. They are 1) Risk management ; clearing and settlement ) Compliance 3) Commodity 4) Branch operations 5) Depository A study of each of these subdivisions is made their hierarchy, function of each official and the findings are noted in the coming pages. RISK MANAGEMENT ; CLEARING AND SETTLEMENT This is one of the subdivisions of the operations department. As stated earlier the operations departments are subdivided according to the functions they perform. Hence it is this subdivision of operations department which deals with the function of management of funds that arise from trading.Though buying and selling of shares take place daily in stock exchanges, settlements of transactions is executed for a specified no: of days after clubbing daily transactions for the entire period. This is known as settlements cycle. For example the beginning of a new settlement is on Wednesday of every week in N. S. E and it ends on next Tuesday. So it is the duty of this subdivision of the operations department to keep the recordsregarding transactions of each customer analyze whether he had made all the transactions in a proper way or not.It is the duty-of this department to check whether a person has paid the amount completely, if he had bought any shares and also to check whether the person is paid completely if he had sold the shares through Geojit. The chief manager (Risk and settlement) stands up in the hierarchy of the department and hence he is the head of the department. He controls and coordinates all the functions of this subdivision. Risk management of funds (of company and its branches) is one of the major functions. The chief manager is assisted by the senior manager (clearing and settlement).The senior manager (clearing and settlement) deals with the process of buying andselling of shares and thereby maintaining proper funds. There is an Asst. Manager under himwho checks the B. S. E operations. The Asst. Manager is assisted by three ‘senior executives' further there are executives junior executives and office assistants to help the topmanagement. A diagrammatic representation of the hierarchy of this departmental subdivision is given on next page. MANAGEMENT ; CLEARNING ; SETTLEMENT CHIEF MANAGER (RISK) SENIOR MANAGER (CLEARING ; SETTLE

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Food Insecurity in America - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 898 Downloads: 3 Date added: 2019/02/15 Category Health Essay Level High school Tags: Food Insecurity Essay Did you like this example? Poverty is an ongoing issue affecting millions of Americans every day. Not having the ability to support their families, people who are impoverished live very difficult and stressful lives. In addition to not being able to pay bills, families whom are impoverished also struggle with food security. Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Food Insecurity in America" essay for you Create order The food you eat produces fuel for the body, and it is extremely important to engage in healthy habits when it comes to food and eating. According to the article, Feeding America: Food Insecurity and Poverty in the United States— with findings from the USDA and U.S. Census Bureau, due to a lack of funding and income, approximately 40 million Americans are unable to afford adequate food. Among this 40 million, it was calculated that 12 million of these people are children (Feeding America). Insufficient food intake causes several other health issues that could be avoided with a cleaner, healthier diet. People who are below the poverty line, however, don’t have the access to adequate food. Tis is due to low incomes, at an average of, â€Å"~$25,100 for a family of four† (Feeding America). The thesis of this article could be considered the title, Feeding America: Food Insecurity and Poverty in the United States— with findings from the USDA and U.S. Census Bureau. All of the findings regarding supporting arguments, illustrations, data, and anecdotes relate back to the main idea presented in the title. There is also support given based on where the information in the article is coming from. In the article, there are several examples of data the help in supporting the main claim relating to food and poverty. For example, the poverty rate for individuals that are disabled is, â€Å"2 times the national rate† (Feeding America). This means that people who have a disability are more likely to be impoverished than people who don’t. In addition, â€Å"rural food insecurity among households has remained higher than urban rates,† (Feeding America). Meaning that living in rural areas, people are more lively to live amongst poverty. Another statistic states that single women households are 2.5 more likely to live in poverty or food instability than an average family. Unemployment and poverty also have a strong correlation with food insecurity. Although, the rates of food insecurity, poverty, and unemployment have declined over recent years. Defining who is food insecure is very difficult, as there are many aspects that effect this instability. In total, there are approximately 15 million households, 6 million with children, and 3 million with a senior that are food insecure (Feeding America). Depending on location and race, there are several statistics that correlate to food insecurity. People of color are half as likely to experience food insecurity, and 40% of households that are unable to afford adequate food live in southern states (Feeding America). Income and poverty also relate directly to an ongoing concern with affording food. With the median income rising, people still have trouble balancing the costly aspects of life; such as, healthcare, food costs, bills, transportation, and living arrangements (Feeding America). However, among the 40 million food insecure Americans, 10 million are unable to receive any aid due to having incomes that are considered too high (Feeding America). In order to assist these individuals, it is important to maximize the use of federal programs supporting food security and fighting nati onal poverty, such as SNAP and WIC in order to keep these programs alive and running (Feeding America). There are no valid exceptions to the data presented in this article. The conclusion of the article provides helpful government programs that assist impoverished families with the costly living conditions when they are considered under the poverty line. After explaining the various statistics relating to food insecurity and poverty, it was effective to conclude with the programs that assist these families. Not only were the programs explained, but the article expressed the importance of these programs, and how much they truly help families in need. In keeping the federal programs afloat, it is important that they are funded and used to the maximum efforts in aiding needy families of America (Feeding America). Prior to reading this article, I did not know much about poverty or food insecurity. This is not something that I have ever had to worry about, so it was interesting to me to understand the circumstances that these individuals face on a daily basis. I am also more aware of the programs that assist these people, and hope that they stay valid. It surprised me that almost half of Americans are food insecure. I don’t think there are any arguments that could be considered. These facts presented by the USDA and U.S. Census Bureau are daunting and alarming, and there is a lot of work to be done to decrease poverty and food insecurity in America. The point of view presented in the article informs my own beliefs, thinking, and communication with others as it educated me on a topic that I did not know much about prior to reading the article. I always though that poverty was a lot less of an issue, however, it effects 40 million Americans (Feeding America). In the past on Thanksgiving, I went to a local food kitchen for community service, so I always thought the amount of impoverished people was a lot lower. I hope to see this number decrease, and hope to get back to the food kitchen in order to help people in need.

Friday, December 27, 2019

The Ustasha Terrorists and War Criminals

The Ustasha are a group intimately related to the wartime history of Yugoslavia, both for their actions and atrocities during World War 2, and their ghosts which haunted the Wars of the Former Yugoslavia in the early 1990s. The Ustasha Form The Ustasha started out as a terrorist movement. In 1929 the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes was turned into a dictatorship by King Alexander I, in part because of years of tension between Serb and Croat political parties. The dictatorship was designed to unite the Kingdom under one identity, and so was renamed Yugoslavia and divided along deliberately non-ethnic lines. In reaction one of the former members of parliament, Ante Pavelić, retreated to Italy and created the Ustasha to fight for Croatian independence. The Ustasha were modeled on the fascists of their adopted Italy but were a largely terrorist organization which aimed to divide Yugoslavia by creating discord and rebellion. They tried to create a peasant uprising in 1932 and managed to incite the assassination of Alexander I in 1934 while he visited France. Rather than dividing Yugoslavia, if anything the Ustasha strengthened it. World War 2: The Ustasha’s War In 1941, Nazi Germany and its allies invaded Yugoslavia after growing frustrated with a lack of co-operation during World War 2. The Nazis hadn’t planned this much in advance and decided to split the county up. Croatia was to be a new state, but the Nazis needed someone to run it, and they turned to the Ustasha. Suddenly, a fringe terrorist organization was handed a state, which included not just Croatia but some of Serbia and Bosnia. The Ustasha then recruited an army and began a major campaign of genocide against Serbs and other residents. Resistance groups formed, and a large proportion of the population died in the civil war. Although the Ustaha lacked the organization of Germany, who welded industrial know how to mass execution to create vast genocides, the Ustaha relied on brute force. The most infamous Ustasha crime was the creation of the concentration camp at Jasenovic. Throughout the latter part of the twentieth century, there was much discussion as to the death toll at Jasenovic, with figures ranging from the tens of thousands to the hundreds of thousands being cited for mostly political purposes. The Ustasha remained in nominal control until May 1945, when the German army and the remainder of the Ustasha retreated away from communist forces. As Tito and the Partisans took control of Yugoslavia, captured Ustasha and collaborators were executed en masse. The Ustasha were finished with the defeat of the Nazis later on in 1945, and might have vanished into history had the post-war history of Yugoslavia been one of building pressure which exploded into more war. Post War Ustaha After the break-up of the communist Yugoslavia and the start of the wars in the 1990s, Serbian and other groups raised the spectre of the Ustasha as they engaged in the conflicts. The term was frequently used by Serbs to refer to the Croatian government or any armed Croatian. On the one hand, this paranoia was deeply seated in the experiences of people who had, fifty years before, suffered at the hands of the real Ustasha, lost parents to them or been in camps themselves. On the other, claims that there were deep-seated hatreds which would re-surface or ethnic propensities to brutal violence, were mostly aimed at putting off international intervention and hyping Serbs into fighting. The Ustasha were a tool that was wielded like a club ​and proved that people who know history can be just as destructive as those that dont. Even today, you can find references to the Ustasha in the names of online gamers and their characters and nations.

Thursday, December 19, 2019

The Artist Thomas Cole s Life With The Beauty Of The...

The artist Thomas Cole was born in 1801, in England. He was an immigrant in the United States, his family and him migrated to the states in 1818, he was 17 years of age. Thomas Cole lived in many different states including, Ohio, Philadelphia and in Pittsburgh where he work all over the place traveling back and fourth as a portrait artist. Thomas Cole was a self-taught artist yet he did interact with well know artist. A changing point in Cole s life that in my opinion that had a big impact on the painting I am going to be talking about is when Cole discovered and fell in love with the beauty of the Hudson River valley. His beautiful landscape exhibitions led him to become part the National Academy of Design. Cole began to paint†¦show more content†¦In this painting we see an infant that is in a boat. Behind the infant there is an angel that is guiding the child out of a cave into a beautiful landscape. Thomas Cole paints the landscape very rich; you get o a sense of warmth a nd calmness. There is beautiful green land, big mountains, and different types of flowers. According to the website Exploring Thomas Cole, there are different types of allegories in this painting. The first allegory is the hourglass that is in the boat. The hourglass is meant to represent time, the second allegory is the river, which is meant to represent the stream of life, and the third allegory is the flower, which is an Egyptian lotus, which Cole described as symbolical of Human Life. Finally the cave that the infant and the angel are coming out of according to Thomas Cole is an emblematic of our earthly origin, and the mysterious Past. Cole uses different types of light and dark colors it gives the painting a different look, the light colors fade and so does the dark colors, this is called chiaroscuro. Perspective was also used in this painting; different parts of the painting have different sizes giving us a sense of depth. The second painting, Youth, painted in 1842, oil on canvas, 53 in Ãâ€" 76 in, continues to have a beautiful green landscape, we still see trees, flowers, mountains, and now we see a castle in the back. In this painting the view is widening. The child from the last painting now looks like adolescent. The

Tuesday, December 10, 2019

Feelings presented in dreams Essay Example For Students

Feelings presented in dreams Essay During the night of July 23-24, 1895, Freud dreamed a historic dream. He called it Irmas Injection. Four years later, Freud concluded that dreams are wish fulfillments. This was the first dream he had submitted to a detailed interpretation (Gay, P. 1998). Freud was living at Bellevue, a resort villa in a Vienna suburb, at the time of the dream. He was very hard at work when this dream occurred. The dream was of family news and professional concerns. It was a large hall in which we were receiving many guests, among them Irma, a friend of the family. A young lady I had been treating psychoanalytically (Gay, P. 1998). Freud reproaches her for not accepting his solution and tells her that if she still has pains, it is your fault. She replies that the choking pains in her throat, stomach, and abdomen are more severe than of what he knows. Freud studies her and wonders if he has not perhaps overlooked some organic ailment. He looks down her throat and finds a white patch and some grayish scabs formed like the turbinal bones of the nose. The dream scene then grows crowded with physician-friends of Freuds; Oscar Rie, Breuer, and Fliess. Somehow all these doctors, except for Fliess, proved to have been responsible for Irmas persistent pains. He dreams that Rie has thoughtlessly given Irma an injection with a syringe that was not clean Freud interpreted a lot from this dream. I will not claim that I have completely uncovered the meaning of this dream or that its interpretation is without gaps (Gay, P. 1998). He recalled the reception of guests as an anticipation for his wifes birthday party. The chemical trimethylamin that was used reflected on his friend, Fliess theories about sexual chemistry because the dream involved a woman. The unclean syringe showed his excessive pride in the way he carefully kept his syringes clean. He concluded that the dream can be labeled as, worry over health, ones own and that of others, and a doctors conscientiousness (Strachey, J. 1968). The burden of the wish the dream portrayed was that Irmas suffering should be truly seen as not his fault but the fault of others. H. Interpretation of Dreams A survey was completed in Ms. Melvilles second period class, consisting of twenty-three students and Ms. Melville. Eighty-eight percent stated that they dreamed of kissing someone or being kissed by someone. Kissing someone is interpreted as suggesting an acceptance of that person as potentially a new relationship. It can also mean that you are seeking to develop a quality belonging to that other person in yourself. Being kissed by someone indicates that you are appreciated and loved for yourself. A single kiss, an example is a kiss on the forehead, symbolizes a blessing of a spiritual kind. Kissing a dead person is an omen for a long happy life. On the other hand, kiss a baby and something you thought was difficult will go well. I. Why are Dreams Forgotten? Most people take very little interest in their dreams. Anyone who pays attention to their dreams over a period of time will have more dreams than usual. It means memory of dreams is easier (Strachey, J. 1968). Only the things that are odd and stand out in dreams are remembered. When a dream is forgotten in the morning, it may never be recollected during the course of the day. It is important to remember all details to make out what the true meaning of the dream might be. Twenty-nine percent of the class stated that they remember their dreams, while 67% said that they dont, and 4% said that dreams are sometimes remembered. J. Conclusion Many psychologists believe that feelings presented in dreams usually a single emotion such as fear, anger, or joy may play a role in the brains ability to handle various tasks in life. Hidden feelings are often surfaced, which helps people to understand themselves better. When we understand our dreams we can understand ourselves. This is the significance of dreaming. Therefore, contrary to some belief, dreaming can be very meaningful.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Wiki Report tourism in Switzerland and Malaysia

Introduction The tourism industry has continued to register positive results despite pessimistic economic forecasts across the globe. Global tourism maintained a positive momentum of more than 2% growth between 2010 and 2012. This growth occurred due to an increase in the number of travellers going to different destinations. Market estimations show that tourism will grow by 2.3% by the end of 2013 (Research and Markets 2012).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Wiki Report: tourism in Switzerland and Malaysia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More The amount of money spent by tourists in different parts of the world has increased considerably. This has increased the amount of money earned by countries with large tourism industries. This augurs well for the industry which has experienced many challenges in the past which discouraged tourists from travelling (ITB 2013). This report highlights issues that affect tourism in S witzerland and Malaysia. The report will evaluate tourism policies in these two regions and how they have affected tourism activities in the last two decades (Klopping 2012). It will also compare the models of innovation and creativity that have made positive impacts on tourism in these countries. Industry Overview Switzerland’s Tourism Industry The Swiss tourism industry has recorded positive growth in the last one year and it earned the country an estimated CHF 35.5 billion in 2012. The industry’s main drivers of growth were transportation, restaurant services and accommodation services, all of which contributed more than CHF 18 billion in 2012 (STF 2012). These three tourism sub sectors contributed more than 51 percent of total revenues obtained in the industry in 2012. These estimates show that the tourism industry in the country is registering positive results because of its status as one of the most preferred tourist destinations in the world (Barton 2008). The c ountry’s tourism balance of payments is favourable because foreign tourists spent an estimated CHF 15.4 billion in 2012. Similarly, Swiss tourists who travelled abroad spent an estimated CHF 11.8 billion in the same year. Comparatively, Swiss nationals who travelled to foreign countries spent CHF 11.6 in 2010 and CHF 15.6 billion in 2011, respectively. Switzerland’s tourism industry is one of the most competitive in the world and earns the country high amounts of foreign currency. The country has experienced an increase in the number of firms that offer specialized services to tourists. There are many tourism firms in Switzerland which target different market segments. Some of the leading firms include; Switzerland Tours, My Switzerland, Incoming Travel Services and Zicasso (Khalid 2013).Advertising Looking for report on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Malaysia’s Tourism Industry Mal aysia is one of the most popular and competitive tourist destinations in Asia. Malaysia recorded a 7% increase in the number of tourists visiting the country in 2009. It is estimated that 23.6 million tourists visited the country in 2009 compared to 21.95 million that arrived in 2008. The country’s tourism industry did not experience problems felt by other countries due to the global financial crisis. Malaysia continues to receive a lot of visitors which has helped the local industry to achieve positive growth. This situation is similar to the favourable industry environment that exists in Switzerland. There are several firms which offer a wide variety of services that seek to take advantage of opportunities existing in the market. These firms are optimistic that positive tourism indicators in the country will help them increase their earnings (Chakraborty 2007). Market leaders in Malaysia’s tourism industry include Tourism Malaysia, HK Top Tourism, Apple Vacations and Conventions, Cat City Holidays, Ping Anchorage and Tropical Adventures and Tours. These firms have unique niche segments, a situation which is similar to the Swiss tourism industry. These firms have strengthened their brands in the market through differentiation of products and services. Innovation, Creativity and Enterprise There are several theories and models which are used to analyse innovation, creativity and enterprise in different tourism sectors. Rothwell’s Five Generations of Innovation Model and Incremental Innovation Theory will be used to analyze Swiss and Malaysian Tourism Industries. Rothwell’s Five Generation of Innovation Model This model is considered as one of the most important contributions to the study of innovation in tourism industries. This model captures generations of innovations dating from the 1950’s to the current period (Moutinho 2011). The model looks at various generations of innovation and specific market conditions that made th em happen. It focuses on how different stages of innovations are responsive to various changes in market conditions such as competition, inflation and economic recovery. It also focuses on unemployment, economic growth, industrial expansion and scarcity of resources (Hassanien, Dale Clarke 2010). This model will mainly focus on generations of Swiss and Malaysian tourism industries from 1990s onwards. Malaysia Tourism Industry Malaysia’s tourism industry experienced an awakening during the fifth generation of innovation in the 1990s. This begun when the government launched a five year economic plan in 1991, which spelt out what needed to be done to ensure the local tourism industry became more competitive (King 1993, p. 78).Advertising We will write a custom report sample on Wiki Report: tourism in Switzerland and Malaysia specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More A key pillar of this plan was the emphasis on research, product deve lopment and marketing, which helped the country establish itself as a niche destination for eco and agro based tourism (Malhotra 201, p. 56). The National Tourism Policy formulated in 1992 helped to provide proper regulatory guidance to the local industry (Government of Malaysia 1991). The country took note of sustainability issues in tourism by launching the National Ecotourism Plan in 1996 to encourage sustainable tourism practices (Government of Malaysia 1996). This fifth generation of innovation has made the country’s tourism stand out due to its high quality attractions and environmental sustainability (Government of Malaysia 2001). Swiss Tourism Industry The industry’s innovative practices took root during the fourth generation in the 1980’s. it easily attained the fifth generation of innovation because many firms were willing to offer new products and services to their customers (Wurz 2013). Major tourist attractions in the country include historical site s, unique cuisine, luxurious accommodation and a wide range of entertainment activities (Koumelis 2013). This has helped the country maintain its status as one of the most visited tourist destinations in the world. The Swiss tourism industry is built on four main pillars which are economic, ecological, cultural and local community sustainability. This has made it easy for the country to maintain product diversity which appeals to different tourist segments. The industry encourages different players to explore more opportunities and implement new technologies to help them have a positive impact. Incremental or Radical Coles and Hall (2008) reveal innovation and creativity can either be incremental or radical, depending on the firm managing the process. Improvements made in existing technologies, processes and products are referred to as incremental innovation (Hall Wouldiams 2008). Innovation that is initiated from the beginning meant to overhaul different industry systems is known as radical innovation. Radical innovation is very difficult to implement but offers long term benefits to a tourism industry. Malaysia’s tourism industry before the fifth generation was based on incremental innovation, which stifled the development of innovative products and services (Peng 2010). The implementation of new policies encouraged adoption of new technologies which improved performance of firms active in the sector. Radical innovative approaches encouraged ecotourism to flourish which made more visitors tour waterfalls, rivers and agricultural parks. Technological advancements have also revolutionized the quality of services offered in the industry. Most booking and ticketing services are done electronically, which has made it easy for different industry players to collaborate.Advertising Looking for report on communications media? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Switzerland’s tourism industry also uses new technologies to improve the quality of services offered. The country has a competitive edge over other destinations because it has diversified its tourist attractions to cater for niche customer interests. It offers ecotourism, reverie tourism, agro-tourism, and holiday entertainment (Hall Piggin 2003). The country improved its transport and communications infrastructure with neighbouring countries, which has made it easy for tourists to visit different places. Conclusion Both Switzerland and Malaysia are key tourist hubs in their respective regions. Their industries have recorded positive growth in the last few years. Five generations model and incremental or radical theories have been used to describe innovative tourism practices in the two countries. Malaysia managed to streamline its tourism sector in the fifth generation of innovation which improved the quality of services offered to tourists visiting the country. Switzerland was able to put in place effective innovation, creativity and enterprise pillars in the third generation. These approaches have made tourism sectors in the two countries more competitive. References Barton, S. 2008, Healthy living in the Alps, Manchester University Press, Manchester. Chakraborty, A. 2007, Global tourism, APH, New York. Coles, T. Hall, M. 2008, International business and tourism, Routledge, London. Government of Malaysia 1991, Sixth Malaysia plan, Government of Malaysia Printers, Kuala Lumpur. Government of Malaysia 1996, Seventh Malaysia plan, Government of Malaysia Printers, Kuala Lumpur. Government of Malaysia, 2001, Eighth Malaysia plan, Government of Malaysia Printers, Kuala Lumpur. Hall, C and Wouldiams, M. 2008, Tourism and innovation, Routledge, New York. Hall, M. and Piggin, R. 2003, World heritage sites: managing the brand, Elsevier, Oxford. Hassanien, A., Dale, C. Clarke, A. 2010, Hospitality business development, Routledge, New York. ITB 2013, ITB worl d travel trends report – 2012/2013, International Tourism Board, Berlin. Web. Khalid, K. 2013, ‘Cover story: massive benefits from JVs with foreign developers’, New Strait Times 4th July. Web. King, T. 1993, Tourism and culture in Malaysia, Routledge, London. Klopping, L. 2012, Health tourism in Switzerland, Grin Verlag, Berlin. Koumelis, T. 2013, ‘Sustainable tourism gets green light in Langkawi, Malaysia’, Travel Daily News Asia 5th May. Web. Malhotra, Y. 2001, Knowledge management and business model innovation, Idea Group Inc, London. Moutinho, L. 2011, Strategic management in tourism, CABI, London. Peng, H. 2010, ‘Innovation way to tourism charisma, ’, The Star 22 May. Web. Research and Markets 2012, Malaysian tourism industry forecasts to 2012, Research and Markets Industry Reports, London. Web. STF 2012, Swiss tourism in figures 2011 – structure and industry data, Swiss Tourism Federation Annual Overview, Berne. Web. Wurz, J . 2013, ‘Swiss invest in innovation to boost tourism’, Swiss Info 5th June. Web. This report on Wiki Report: tourism in Switzerland and Malaysia was written and submitted by user Mya K. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.